The surface of Europe is an ice crust that is up to 20 kilometers thick, but in some places it can be just a few meters. Below it is an ocean filled with liquid water in which life can exist.
This can be demonstrated by the data obtained from space probes. At the bottom of the ocean, in geothermal chimneys, there are ideal conditions for the flowering of various life forms. Perhaps we are completely strangers. Life in Europe, if it exists at all, must be under ice. This moon does not have an atmosphere and a strong magnetic field that could effectively protect various life forms against the deadly effects of strong cosmic radiation and that of Jupiter.
The surface of the moon fascinates with its appearance. It resembles a picture of a crazy artist or an extensive road network. In fact, long lines are the result of various chemical reactions. There are numerous geysers that occasionally gush with water. At a large angle, the surface of the object resembles hedgehog pins free top web tutorials. In some places they are even 15 meters high and lie within 5 meters of each other.
On our beautiful planet, such pins are called penitents (snow nuns). They occur, among others in the highlands of South America, e.g. in the Andes, where there are low temperatures and an extremely dry climate. Ice and snow covering highlands heated by warm sun rays quickly sublimates, and the effect is sharp formations, called penitents, resembling ice pins in their appearance.
The American Space Agency in 2023, and the European Space Agency already in 2022 plan to send missions called Europa Clipper and JUICE to the ice moons of Jupiter, then a new era of searching for alien life in our solar system will begin. New information confirming the geological activity of Europe and its geysers, as well as favorable conditions for the functioning of life just a few centimeters below the surface, will allow scientists to better prepare their future missions.
The agencies are also developing a tunnel boring probe project that will be nuclear-powered. Thanks to fissile materials, not only will the device have a powerful and stable power source, but above all it will be able to generate heat, with the help of which it will be possible to drill into the ice crust, melt it and eventually get to the subsurface ocean.
There, the probe will change into a submarine, and the NASA research group will then be able to start exploring the ocean and conduct necessary experiments leading to the detection of traces of biological life. Scientists are sure that in the 1920s or 1930s humanity will eventually discover alien life on other objects roaming the solar system.
On the occasion of the JUICE mission from ESA, it is worth adding that Poles will play a large role in it. On board the probe will be such instruments as: RPWI plasma instrument set for conducting a radio experiment and SWI instrument for observing submillimeter waves generated by excited molecules in the atmosphere of Jupiter.
Both systems are built by Polish companies, such as Astronika, thriving in the private sector of the space industry, and with the participation of the Space Research Center of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Thanks to them, we will learn how strong electric and magnetic fields originating from Jupiter affect the largest moons of this planet, Ganymede and Europe, and we will also be able to study the physical and chemical processes occurring in the central atmosphere of Jupiter and assess the thickness and characterize the ice covers of its moons .